Document Type

Original Article

Subject Areas



Fish aquaculture- Resin-Ammonia-Catfish - Acacia nilotica


The current study is among sustainable ideas applied to enhance water quality of the aquaculture to remove ammonia and decrease the water usage. The experiment was applied on catfish (Clarias garepienus) aquaculture water by A resin for new material was synthesized by condensation of the extract of the Acacia nilotica fruit with 25ml of formaldehyde and 20 ml of HCl as a catalyst for 1h, which is cheap materials and give sustainability. The adsorption of ammonia as NH4+ was first demonstrated in distilled water solution. The NH4+ adsorption started to be preceded very fast within 3 min for three different initial ammonia concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/l) approached 60–76% of the maximal uptake potential under the equilibrium conditions. According to our findings, the greatest NH4+ removal and adsorption capacity (qt mg/g) was obtained in 30 minutes as a contact time between resin and fish water in all three initial ammonia concentrations. On the other hand, the removal rate also increased and the contact time decreased with an increase in the equivalent dose to reach 95%, then the water was returned to the farm. Therefore, this study introduced sustainable solutions to enhance the water quality and maximization of the water utilization. It is recommended to use it in the treatment of fish farming water to reduce the loss in the culture water and improve the water quality.