Corresponding Author

Ragab, H.

Document Type

Original Article

Subject Areas

Earth science


BLACK SANDS; Mediterranean Sea; GAMASA CITY; Egypt


The study area of the Mediterranean Sea Coast was covered by seawater containing detritus sediments transported by White Nile, Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers composed from amphibolite; granulites grade metamorphic rocks of the central African province and alkali basalts of Ethiopian high lands. The study area exposed to river environment, because of clay and organic matter contents in the raw sands. The apparent specific gravity of the top meter in the studied sediments ranged from 1.36 to 1.71 gm. /cm3 with an average1.533625 gm. /cm3. These sediments contain heavy economic minerals such as magnetite, ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, monazite, zircon, garnet, cassiterite, xenotime, thorite, thorianite, gold, copper, zinc and lead, and light minerals such as quartz, feldspars, amphiboles, pyroxenes, mica,…. . The heavy minerals have the highest content in the middle area and the lowest content towards west in the study area. The radiometric measurements of the study area are important to determine the human radiation exposure and detect the radiation doses by converting the concentrations of Radium (ppm), equivalent Uranium (ppm), equivalent Thorium (ppm) and Potassium percent into absorbed dose and effective dose rates. The calculated values of absorbed dose and effective dose rates were found below the world average values according to (UNSCEAR, 2000). Therefore, there are no side effects to the human beings or the other habitants found near the study area and it is recommended using the beach sands in this area for building constructions and engineering with taking into consideration increasing the ventilations in these buildings to reduce radon emissions if present.

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