Corresponding Author

Bashandy,, M.

Document Type

Original Article

Subject Areas

Botany, Microbiology and Zoology


Imidacloprid; beta; carotene; Hesperidin; liver function; Oxidative Stress; Synergistic effect; hepatoprotection


The role of beta carotene (20mg/kg) and hesperidin (100mg/kg) in protection against imidacloprid (45 mg/kg, 90 mg/kg that represent 1/10 LD50 and 1/5 LD50 of IM) induced hepatotoxicity wasinvestigated. All the treatments were given orally and daily for thirty days. The treatment of rats with IM showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alpha fetoprotein (α-FP), total bilirubin, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Also, Imidacloprid treatment led to a significant rise of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (N.O). On the other-hand, plasma total protein (TP) and albumin tended to a significant decrease due to IM treatment. Hepatic catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of IM group exhibited a significant decrease. The histological study showed lesions in the liver of treated rats with IM. Both beta carotene and hesperidin mitigate the deleterious effects of IM on previous parameters as manifested by a significant decrease of MDA, N.O, liver enzymes, and improved antioxidant enzyme levels and liver histology. The protective effect of beta carotene and hesperidin in combination is more pronounced. Therefore, our results clarify the synergistic effect of these two antioxidants on alleviating imidacloprid toxicity.

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