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Original Article

Subject Areas



Basalt; Clinkerization; Ordinary Portland Clinker


This study comprises the effect of basalt as a flux and mineralizer on the formation of Portland cement clinker, where it used instead of sand, iron and clay at constant lime saturation factor. Three mixtures were prepared, the first formed from original raw materials, in second mixture the sand and iron replaced by basalt and in the third mixture the clay, sand and iron replaced by basalt. All these mixtures prepared at same lime saturation factor. Firing all these mixtures at same temperature 1350 oC with heating rate 10oC/min and for one hour as a soaking time. The chemical and x-ray analysis of the different raw materials such as original raw mix, limestone, clay, and basalt were determined. Also physical and chemical changes during heating up the mixtures were studied by the aim of DSC technique. The degree of formation of the clinker was studied by the determination of insoluble residue, free lime contents, identification of the cement phases such as C3S, ß-C2S, C3A., and C4AF by the aid of the XRD technique, and SEM. The potential phase composition of clinker was calculated by Bouge’s equations.

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